Senin, 14 Januari 2013

Filtration Method To Purify The Water


Arranged by,
Ertika Chandra Dewi             11315244003
Fithria Utami                         11315244019
Fetika Cahyaning S.              11315244030
Rosita Sari Nurahmadi          11315244031
Rizqi Azizah Nur A.             11315244032


To purify wasted water
Water is the source of life. Often we hear the earth is called the blue planet, as the waters cover 3/4 of the earth surface. But not infrequently, we had trouble getting clean water, especially during the dry season when water life begins to change color or smell. Ironic indeed, but that's the reality. To be sure we must always be optimistic. Although water wells or other water sources that we have started to become cloudy, dirty or smelly, over quantity still a lot we can still attempt to turn it into clean water suitable to be used where one way is to make a water filter.
There are many simple ways that we can use to clean water, and the most common use is to make a water filter, and for us probably the most appropriate yng is making water purifier or water filter is simple. It should be noted, that the water filtration simply can not eliminate completely dissolved salts in the water. Use distilled to produce water that contains no salt. Here are some simple ways to get aternatif water clean by filtering water:
1.    Cotton fabric filter.
Making water filter using a cotton cloth filtering technique the simple / easy. Turbid water filtered using a clean cotton cloth. This filter can clean the water of impurities and small organisms that exist in the murky water. Air filter results depending on the thickness and density of the fabric used.
2.    Cotton sieve
This water filter technique can provide better results than previous techniques. As well as filtering with cotton fabric, with cotton filtering can also clean the water of impurities and small organisms that exist in the murky water. The results of the filter also depends on the thickness and density of the cotton used.
3.     Aeration
Aeration is the process of purification by way of filling oxygen into the water. With diisikannya oxygen into the water substances such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide and methane that affect the taste and odor of the water can be reduced or eliminated. Besides mineral particles are dissolved in the water such as iron and manganese will oxidize quickly and will form a layer of sediment that will be removed by sedimentation or filtration process.
4.    Slow sand filter (SPL)
Slow sand filter water filters are created using layers of sand and gravel at the top to the bottom. Clean water is obtained by filtering the raw water through layers of sand first and then pass through a layer of gravel.
5.    Rapid sand filter (SPC)
Rapid sand filter as well as the slow sand filter, consisting of a layer of sand on top and gravel at the bottom. But water filtration reverse direction when compared to the Slow Sand Filter, from bottom to top (up flow). Clean water is obtained by filtering the raw water through a layer of gravel first and then pass through a layer of sand.
6.    Gravity-Fed Filtering System
Gravity-Fed Filtering System is a combination of Rapid Sand Filter (SPC) and the Slow Sand Filter (SPL). Clean water is produced in two stages. First the water is filtered using Rapid Sand Filter (SPC). Filtered water and then filtered results back using slow sand filter. With twice the screening is expected that the resulting water quality could be better. To anticipate the results of filtering the water flow out of the Rapid Sand Filter, can be used multiple / multi Slow Sand Filter.
7.     Charcoal Filters
Charcoal filter can be said to be a charcoal filter sand with an additional single layer of charcoal. Layer of charcoal is very effective in removing odors and flavors that exist in the raw water. Charcoal is used can be either wood or charcoal coconut shell charcoal. For better results can be used activated charcoal.
8.    Simple water filter / traditional
Simple water filter / traditional sand filter is a modification of the charcoal and slow sand filters. In addition to traditional filter uses sand, gravel, stone and charcoal also added a layer of fruit injuk / fibers derived from coconut fiber.
9.    Ceramic Filters
Ceramic filter can be stored for long periods of time so it can be prepared and used for emergencies. Clean water is obtained by filtering through the ceramic filter element. Some use a mixture of silver kramik filter that serves as a disinfectant and kills bacteria. When the screening process, impurities present in the raw water will be captured and over time will accumulate and clog the filter surface. So as to prevent the blockage is too often the raw water which entered not too cloudy or dirty. For treatment saringn ceramics can be done by scrubbing the ceramic filter in running water.
10.                        Sieve Rocks / Jempeng / Mortar Stone
Jempeng rock filter or strainer is similar to ceramics. Water filtered using the pores of the rock. This filter is commonly used by villagers Kerobokan, Bali. Filters are used to filter water from dug wells or from irrigation fields.
Like the ceramic filter, water velocity of distillate jempeng relatively low when compared with even more SPL SPC.
11.Clay filter
Jar or pot of baked clay formed first special on the bottom so water can get out of the pores on the bottom.
Tools       : a. Bottles                   d. Scissor
                  b. Ruler                     e. Pail
                  c. Marker                  
Materials : a. Sands                     d. Big gravels
                  b. gravels                   e. charcoal
                  c. Fibers                     f. Wasted water

a.       Preparing tools and materials
b.      Making the bottle for the container of filter
c.       Deviding the bottle into eight parts, eac h of 3 cm
d.      Filling the bottle with the filter materials
e.       Pouring the wasted water into the filter
f.       Collecting the purified water in a bottle
g.      Comparing the before filtration and after filtration


Before Fitration
After Filtration
Detergen waste
Rice washing waste
Dishes waste

+ : Degree of turbidity


Pada percobaan kami yang berjudul “Filtration Method To Purify The Water” yang  bertujuan untuk menjernihkan air yang sudah tercemar. pada percobaan ini alat yang kami gunakan adalah 3 buah botol mineral bekas. Bahan yang kami gunakan adalah Ijuk, batu kerikil kecil, batu kerikil besar, ijuk, arang, pasir, batu, dan air. Alat dan bahan tersebut kami gunakan sebagai media filtrasi yaitu dengan urutan dari atas adalah sebagai berikut: kerikil besar, ijuk, pasir, ijuk, arang, pasir, kerikil, dan batu. Pada percobaan kami mengenai filtrasi, kami menggunakan 3 macam air kotor yaitu air kotor bekas cucian piring, air kotor bekas cucian pakaian, dan air bekas rendaman beras.
Filtrasi adalah pemisahan campuran berdasarkan ukuran partikelnya, yaitu metode pemisahan zat yang memiliki ukuran partikel yang berbeda dengan menggunakan alat berpori (penyaring/filter). Penyaring akan menahan zat yang ukuran partikelnya lebih besar dari pori saringan dan meneruskan pelarut. Hasil penyaringan disebut filtrat sedangkan sisa yang tertinggal dipenyaring disebut residu (ampas).

            Kemudian pada percobaan kedua kami mengggunakan air kotoran bekas rendaman pakaian. Pada percobaan ini media filtrasi yang kami gunakan tetap sama, hanya saja air kotornya yang berbeda. Dapat diketahui air rendaman pakaian sebelum penyaringan keruh keputih-putihan. Setelah disaring dengan satu kali penyaringan air bekas cucian pakaian tersebut menjadi bening.
                 Percobaan kami yang ketiga yaitu penyaringan air bekas cucian piring. Dari ketiga percobaan tersebut dapat kami ketahui bahwa medai filtrasi yang kami gunakan dapat bekerja atau berfungsi dengan baik dalam proses filtrasi ini. Hasil filtrasi yang kami dapatkan tidak terlalu signifikan karena kami melakukan ketiga percobaan tersebut dalam satu kali percobaan. Apabila penyaringan tersebut dilakukan hingga berkali-kali memungkinkan untuk mendapakan hasil yang bik atau dengan kata lain air bekas tersebut setelah filtrasi berulang kali dapat berubah sejernih air murni. Dapat diketahui media filtrasi yang kami gunakan dapat menyerap kotoran dan sebuk serbuk dari air yang kami gunakan. 

From the experiment, we can conclude that our filtration tool can be used, but not maximal yet. For the result of the filtration not very significant in its change.

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